According to scholars and historians, before the Hijrah of Prophet Muhammad, and his Companions, Midinah was not much of a developed or urbanized city, in terms of demography, construction and business .
It is said that the Amaleeq (the Amalekites), led by their king, Yathrib Mahlaeil, were the first to establish a settlement in the area of Madinah. It is believed that the Madinah’s earliest name, Yathrib, mentioned in the Qur’an in the surah of al-Ahzab [33:13], came from the first name of that Amalekite king.
The Amaleeq were ancient nomadic Arab descendants of Shem (Sam), the son of the Prophet Noah. The area’s current name, the Madinah, which means city, was mentioned twice in the surah of at Tawbah[9:101, 120], and once in the surah of al-Munafiqoon [63:8].
Because Madinah and the area surrounding it were a fertile land, with abundant water, vegetables and fruits, later, it became a point of attraction for emigrants from neighboring areas. Maenians, Persians, Greek and Byzantine settlers were known to have crossed the area at different times. Then the two Qahtani Arab tribes, al-Aws and al-Khazraj, emigrated from Yemen area to the Madinah and the surrounding vicinity.
There is strong historical evidence that al-Aws and al-Khazraj emigrated to Madinah after the destruction of their Saba (Sheba) kingdom of Yemen. Descendents of these two tribes comprised the majority of the inhabitants of Madinah emigrate and settle in it. Jews also settled in the area, bringing their religious culture, commerce and ways of life. They lived in fortresses – not previously known in the area – and had farms around their dwellings.
Thus, before Hijrah, Madinah consisted of a group of small residential communities with many wars and conflicts, and no ties among them.
Prophet Muhammad’s father, Abdullah, died a few months before his son’s birth (in 570 C.E), on his way back from a business trip to ash-Sham (now Syria).
Abdullah was buried in Madinah. In 575 C.E., the Prophet’s mother, Aminah bint Wahb, died on her way back from a trip to Madinah where she and her child, Muhammad, were visiting with the Prophet’s maternal uncles from the Madinah clan of Banu an-Najjae. After Aminah’s death, Abdul Muttalib, the Prophet’s loving and caring grandfather, brought his nephews, Muhammad, back to Makkah
In the year 622 C.E., the Messenger of Allah, made Hijrah to Madinah. His coming ushered in an era of peace and prosperity. The enmity among groups was removed once and for all, and Madinah itself turned into an urbanized residential community led by one leader, and focusing on one mission, that is serving and spreading the message of Islam.
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