Did young Rizal really write poem for children?



ENHANCED photo of the young Jose Rizal at the age of 14.

IN 1892, Jose Rizal began a new novel in Tagalog.

He realized that in order to reach a wider readership in his country, he had to write in his native tongue.

During this time of exile in Hong Kong, his elder brother, Paciano, had completed a translation of the “Noli Me Tangere” from the original Spanish into Tagalog that was corrected and finalized by Rizal.

Envisioned as a popular edition with illustrations by Juan Luna, this book was never to be. The original manuscript translation by Paciano has since been missing.

Nevertheless, Rizal completed a chapter of his satirical Tagalog novel and gave it the title “Makamisa” (After the Mass), but unfortunately he did not have the energy to complete it.

He stopped writing in Tagalog and began anew in Spanish. The drafts of this work were first published in 1993 in my book “Makamisa: The Search for Rizal’s Third Novel.”

Rizal spoke and wrote in Tagalog fluently, but he was unable to write a whole novel in his mother tongue. This is quite surprising for is he not, like Manuel L. Quezon, inextricably linked to the adoption of Tagalog as the national language of the Philippines?

Most quoted line

Isn’t the most quoted line from Rizal’s many poems that from “Sa Aking Mga Kabata” that goes, “Ang hindi marunong magmahal sa sariling wika/masahol pa sa hayop at malansang isda.” (He who loves not his own language/is worse than a beast and a stinking fish.)

Did Rizal write this poem at 8 years old? Did Rizal write this poem at all?

No original manuscript, in Rizal’s own hand, exists for “Sa Aking Mga Kabata,” traditionally believed to be his first poem.

Rizal had 35 years to publish or assert authorship. He did not. The poem was published posthumously, a decade after his execution, as an appendix to “Kun sino ang kumatha ng ‘Florante: Kasaysayan ng Buhay ni Francisco Baltazar’ at pag-uulat nang kanyang karununga’t kadakilaan” (Manila: Libreria Manila-Filatelico, 1906.) by the poet Herminigildo Cruz as follows:

Sa Aking Mga Kabata

Kapagka ang baya’y sadyang umiibig
sa kanyang salitang kaloob ng langit.
sanlang kalayaan nasa ring masapit
katulad ng ibong nasa himpapawid.

Pagka’t ang salita’y isang kahatulan
sa bayan, sa nayo’t mga kaharian,
at ang isang tao’y katulad kabagay
ng alinmang likha noong kalayaan.

Ang hindi magmahal sa kanyang salita
mahigit sa hayop at malansang isda,
kaya ang marapat pagyamaning kusa
na tulad sa inang tunay na nagpala.

Ang wikang Tagalog tulad din sa Latin,
sa Ingles, Kastila, at salitang angel,
sapagkat ang Poong maalam tumingin
ang siyang nag-gawad, nagbigay sa atin.

Ang salita nati’y tulad din sa iba
na may alfabeto at sariling letra
na kaya nawala’y dinatnan ng sigwa
ang lunday sa lawa noong dakong una.


Tracing the provenance of the poem to its source, Cruz claims to have received the poem from his friend, the poet Gabriel Beato Francisco, who got it from a certain Saturnino Raselis of Lukban, a bosom friend of Rizal and teacher in Majayjay, Laguna, in 1884.

Raselis is alleged to have received a copy of this poem from Rizal himself, a token of their close friendship.

Unfortunately, Raselis’ name does not appear in Rizal’s voluminous correspondence, diaries or writings. When Jaime C. de Veyra established the definitive canon of Rizal’s poetry in 1946 with a compilation published in the series “Documentos de la Biblioteca Nacional de Filipinas” (Documents from the National Library of the Philippines) “Sa Aking Mga Kabata” was not published in the original Tagalog but in a free Spanish translation of the Tagalog by Epifanio de los Santos as “A mis compañeros de niñez.”

Tagalog, according to the 8-year-old Rizal, has its own alphabet and letters. It goes back to pre-Spanish times. The precocious child even compared Tagalog with Latin, English, Spanish and “the language of angels,” whatever that is.

Second look

Filipinos raised on textbook history that depicts Rizal as a superhuman genius should give the poem a second look and ask, “Was it really written by an 8-year-old from Calamba just learning to read at his mother’s knee?”

The poem could not have been written in 1869 when Rizal was eight based on the use of the letter “k,” which was a reform in Tagalog orthography proposed by the mature Rizal.

In Rizal’s childhood they spelled words with a “c” rather than “k.” Further, the word “kalayaan” (freedom) is used twice. First, in the third line of the first stanza, there is mention of sanlang kalayaan (pawned freedom).

Was Rizal aware of the colonial condition at this young age? Kalayaan appears the second time in the last line of the second stanza.

Encounter with ‘kalayaan’

These two references ring a bell because kalayaan as we know it today was not widely used in the 19th century. As a matter of fact, Rizal encountered the word first in the summer of 1882 when he was 21 years old!

In a letter to his brother, Paciano, dated Oct. 12, 1886, Rizal related difficulties encountered with Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell that he was translating from the original German into Tagalog:

“I’m sending you at last the translation of Wilhelm Tell by Schiller which was delayed one week, being unable to finish it sooner on account of my numerous tasks. I’m aware of its many mistakes that I entrust to you and my brothers-in-law to correct. It is almost a literal translation. I’m forgetting Tagalog a little, as I don’t speak it with anyone.

“… I lacked many words, for example, for the word Freiheit or liberty, one cannot use the Tagalog word kaligtasan of course because this means that he was formerly in some prison, slavery, etc. I encountered in the translation of Amor Patrio the noun malayá, kalayahan that Marcelo del Pilar used. In the only Tagalog book I have, Florante [at Laura], I don’t find an equivalent noun.”

‘El Amor Patrio’

“El Amor Patrio” was the first article Rizal wrote on Spanish soil. He wrote it in Barcelona in the summer of 1882 and it was published in Diariong Tagalog in August 1882 both in Spanish and a Tagalog translation, “Pag-ibig Sa Tinubuang Lupa,” by Marcelo H. del Pilar.

If, as Rizal admitted, he did not encounter the word kalayaan until he was studying in Europe at 21 years old, how can he have used it at 8 years old in Calamba?

In light of its complicated provenance and the anachronistic use of the word kalayaan a shadow of doubt has been cast on “Sa Aking Mga Kabata.”

There are only two poems attributed to Rizal in Tagalog, the other is “Kundiman.” Both are questionable. All his documented poems are in Spanish.

If Rizal did not compose “Sa Aking Mga Kabata,” who did?

Our two suspects are the poets Herminigildo Cruz or Gabriel Beato Francisco.

Identifying the true author of “Sa Aking Mga Kabata” is important because millions of Filipino children are miseducated each year during Buwan ng Wika when they are told that Rizal composed a poem on his mother tongue when he was 8.

Will the real author of “Sa Aking Mga Kabata” please stand up for he who does not love his own poem/is worse than a beast and a stinking fish (“ang di magmahal sa sariling tula/mahigit sa hayop at malansang isda”).

To My Childhood Companions (Nick Joaquin translation)

Whenever a people truly love
the language given them from above,
lost freedom will they ever try
to regain, as birds yearn for the sky.

For language is a mandate sent
to each people, country and government;
and every man is, like all free
creation, born to liberty.

Who does not love his own tongue is
far worse than a brute or stinking fish,
for we should foster and make it great
like unto a mother blest by fate.

Like Latin, English, Spanish, or
the speech of angels is Tagalog,
for God, a wise provider, it was
who made and handed it to us.
Like the others, our language was equipped
with its own alphabet, its own script,
which were lost when a storm brought down in woe
the barque on the lake long, long ago.

(Editor’s Note: Ambeth R. Ocampo is the chair of the Department of History at Ateneo de Manila University.)

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  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_5STEU22AD7YRHQSB6RE56ZDSYA J

    If Dr. Jose Rizal still alive today will he get furious on how we bastardised our language as for example in text messages and jejemon?
    …is that what he meant about what he said “ang hindi marunung magmahal sa sariling wika/masahol pa
    sa hayop at malansang isda”.
    He talked about love of country and love of our language and worked for our freedom from Spain but here we are never learn anything yet.

    • Anonymous

      For a guy who writes novels in Spanish, I’d give him a good slapping or two.

      • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_IJ2DA4ZHFHZOM2I2UCLJGFY7GI Shai

        Hey redkinoko… Spanish ang gamit noon kaya ganoon.   Ikaw bakit English ang gamit mo ha? Bbigyan din kita ng ‘slap’ dyan.  Sorry Bisaya ako at nakalimutan ko ang Tagalog ng slap. Anyway matagal na ako dito sa Canada kaya ganoon.

  • Anonymous

    I had a 4 year old who lived with us here in NZ in the last 5 years.  She can no longer speak Tagalog even if we speak Tagalog at home.  In short, Rizal must have encountered the word at a young age when he was still using Tagalog as his first language.  As he grew and speak less of the language, he might have forgotten words that are not used often.  I do… there are a few words from the English language that I am unable to translate to Tagalog… In short, your article is useless for this very reason.  

  • kido

    “Ang hindi marunong magmahal sa sariling wika/masahol pa sa hayop at malansang isda.”  …kung tutoo ito bakit parang siya mismo (Rizal) ang bumali sa kanyang kasabihan… kung ating papansinin lahat ng mga obra ni Rizal sa pagsusulat karamihan nito halos lahat ay nagawa sa banyagang wika….nangangahulugan ba na kaya niya nasabing ‘hayop at malansang isda’  dahil nasalamin niya ang kanyang sarili sa pagsisising hindi paggamit ng ating sariling wika sa kanyang pagsusulat?????

    • Anonymous

      palagay ko para mas maunawaan ng marami, kasi wikang kastila naman ang gamit noon diba? imo lang naman.

      OT lang, sabi ng lola ko sa tuhod, hindi naman daw mestizo si dr. rizal, bakit dito sa pix ang pogi? hehehe

    • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_IJ2DA4ZHFHZOM2I2UCLJGFY7GI Shai

      Hey kido… ginamit ni Rizal ang Spanish kasi gusto niya maintindihan ng Spaniards na umabuso sa kanilang  powers noon sa Pinas.  Ayaw ng mga Spanish friars/governors noon na malaman ng mother Spain ang totoong nangyayari sa Pinas.  Kaya pinatay nila si Rizal ..ang dahilan ang mga sinusulat niya which were intended to expose their abuses in power.  Nasaan ka ba nung itinuro yon. Paano ka pumasa?  .

  • http://twitter.com/BackpackPH BackpackPhilippines

    i, too, don’t believe it was rizal who wrote the poem. i tell people about it sometimes but most of the time they don’t agree and demand proof. well i say it’s the other way around, those who want to prove rizal wrote it should produce the original document written by the young rizal himself. i repeat: no document, no history!

    • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_IJ2DA4ZHFHZOM2I2UCLJGFY7GI Shai

      To BackpackPhilipppines.  I believe si Rizal ang sumulat ng poem na yon e kung hindi bakit hindi nagreklamo ang tunay na sumulat kung meron man, aber?  Nawala lang seguro ang manuscript sa dami na ng naghandle .. 2 centuries na for God’s sake….baka ninakaw yon, ano?.. You know maraming gusto magkaroon ng manuscript para souvenir.  Ang sinabi kong to ay intended din sa sumulat ng artikulo, si AmbethR.Ocampo. .   

    • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_5STEU22AD7YRHQSB6RE56ZDSYA J

      So the dinosaurs may have some documents left hidden somewhere. A maybe they are original still.

      • Ichiro Ochiro

        Yes. They’re called fossils.

  • Anonymous

    How is that enhanced? ITS CREEPY.

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_FJAHNFOX67YGJKYP3FAK6HM5A4 Pablo

    For one, I agree that language is a mandate from above, it was no other than the only living God the Creator of heavea nd earth who assigned it to each people on earth, just like He allotted each and every people on earth each their own countries and even assigned an angel to look after each race. That is why everyone of us should just stay as we are in those things that God mandated for us, like colors and language to name some, for in them we can glorify God through His Son, Jesus Christ whom God declared to be the Saviour of the World and will very soon establish His kingdom on Earth.

  • http://twitter.com/boymatiao isko daya

    Somebody must be writing fantastic things about Rizal. Sometimes because of its too-good-to-be-true character, I don’t believe it.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Roehlano-Briones/100000612921208 Roehlano Briones

    Ever since I gained a layperson’s appreciation of historiography I’ve always doubted that an eight-year old can muster the vocabulary and syntax – in any language – to compose such a poem. Kudos to Ambeth for putting history over hagiography. 

  • http://twitter.com/coituscams coituscams

    For a guy who writes novels in Spanish, I’d give him a good slapping or two.

  • Anonymous

    at kaninong kaban nyo nakuha yang litrato ni rizal as a 14 year old lad.

  • Anonymous

    yup! definitely  8y/o child can write if the child will be guided at time he writes it.. mother of pepe was his teacher at that age, paciano who is his brother; the first patriotic of the family who influenced pepe so much. I do have a son my self and one good thing in a child is “he keeps on asking things!.. so if a child was fed by wisdom of patriotism and love for his country.. i believe its true.. 

  • Liezl Ruiz

    @alice_in_chains: charmer naman talaga si rizal. besides, kailangan bang maging mestizo para maging gwapo? take a look at Derek Ramsey, at iba pang mga pogi diyang hindi kulay gatas.

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_GUZISWUMVDD5QJUC7GBJKEM7XA prangka

    Is there a serious study/investigation on the alleged link between Dr. Jose Rizal and Jack the Ripper? It sounds foolish but I can’t help wondering what if….. There’s just too many coincidences or should we call it circumstantial evidences posted on the internet. 

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_4HOR4IYYG4PF5OWI3SLBWZGRS4 Eugene

    Hindi ko malaman kung ano ang malaking ikinaggalit ni Ambeth Ocampo kay Jose Rizal. Nong araw pa
    niya kinukuwestyon ang mga ginawa ni Rizal, nguni’t wala naman siyang ipinakikitang pruweba sa kanyang haka-haka. Mr. Ocampo, bago mo buksan ang bibig mo ay maghahanda ka muna ng pruweba. Ngunii’t hindi kita masisi, ang iyong kustombre ay tipikal ng mga katulad mong pinagkaitan ng kalikasan ng ganap na pagkalalaki.

    • Anonymous

       Ad Hominem. Hindi malakas at magandang argumento ang pang-iinsulto. Natural sa pananaliksik ang pagtatanong at paghamon sa kaalaman o impormasyon.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Hern-Sabandal/100000455818050 Hern Sabandal

     “… I lacked many words, for example, for the word Freiheit or liberty, one cannot use the Tagalog word
    kaligtasan of course because this means that he was formerly in some
    prison, slavery, etc. I encountered in the translation of Amor Patrio
    the noun malayá, kalayahan that Marcelo del Pilar used. In the only
    Tagalog book I have, Florante [at Laura], I don’t find an equivalent

  • Justine Salvador

    It is such a beautiful poem and one of the most popular. Why would Herminigildo Cruz or Beato Francisco not stand up as the author of the poem if it was really one of them in the first place? They could have just used a much more popular person than that mysterious Raselis to make it more believable if they really had plans to make a fraud. He lived for just 35 years and he died for our country. It is possible that his heroism started at a very early age of 8 to make equal range for his short life and early death so I don’t doubt his ability to write this great poem. Uhm, where did he get that creepy “enhanced” picture of young Rizal anyway? I think it’s too enhanced it made Rizal look like a mestizo which is far from his looks on other pictures. Now that’s the fraud.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Stephanie-Kate-de-Guzman-Cruz/100000066145949 Stephanie Kate de Guzman-Cruz

    Stephanie Kate
    Did young Rizal really write the poem “Sa Aking mga Kabata”?
    In my opinion, he has the capacity of doing writing it but if he really did it,
    why is Kalayaan written as “K” instead of using “C”? If Pepe did not really
    write the poem, maybe the most quotable line would not include a “stinking fish”
    which represents the agriculture in his beloved hometown. Did Saturnino Raselis
    really exist? If he really exists, why is he not even mentioned in any of Rizal’s
    diaries or writings? Being a national hero I guess includes many doubts about someone’s
    personality, life and in Rizal’s case including his works . That might be the
    reason why Jose is always being doubted, is he?


  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_TRWLWCZXDX6UCUXFV2EFNDNVNU Bernadette

    Is Rizal at the
    age of 8, knows the word “kalayaan” when he was writing the poem
    “Sa Aking Mga Kabata” and mentioned it twice? In my own opinion, at
    his young age, he will not think of kalayaan in the Philippines because the
    mind of an ordinary child is out of that problem. He was not yet aware of that
    kind of idea compared to a mind of a man, who can compose and create a poem.
    There’s a big difference in the level of thinking of a child to a man that’s
    why the awareness in their surroundings also is different even though
    Rizal was called to be an inborn genius. Is it right to compare the mind
    of a child to a man? Is the basis of knowledge or the level of thinking depends
    on how a child or a man react to his/her surroundings?

    SSC – Bernadette

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_C5TQSUI53FVNOAUK3NRT76O7GU Alliah

    If there is
    no sufficient evidence that supports “Sa Aking Mga Kabata” was indeed written
    by the 8 year old Rizal, then the Filipino people should be open to the
    possibility that it could had been written by someone else. Regarding the word
    “Kalayaan”, in his letter to Paciano about the translation of Schiller’s Wilhelm Tell, he did mention
    that he is forgetting his Tagalog because he does not speak it with anyone.
    Thus providing a possibility of him having encountered it but has

    SSC-Benederio , Alliah

  • Anonymous

    I believe that Rizal was the one who wrote Sa Aking Mga Kabata. It was possible for him to write a poem and come up with this idea because the age of 3 he learned the alphabet from his mother and at the age of 5 he learned how to read and write. Maybe he got the idea of freedom or ‘kalayaan’ from the books he’s reading in the ‘kubo’ he had at the back of their house. Also, her mother is one of the intelligent women during those times. He may have taught him or told stories about freedom. The words used like kaharian & malansang isda have connections with Rizal. Some of the stories he read or was read to him by his mother were about Greek mythology. This was also shown through his other writings such as The Council of Gods wherein the characters of the story were gods & goddesses. Another, he used the metaphor ‘malansang isda’ because they belong to a fishing community. Maybe the original copy got lost or stolen. There were a lot of things happening during the time of Rizal. Maybe it was destroyed by the Spaniards when they knew it belonged to Rizal. I think Ambeth should look for more evidences before stating something about an important matter. 


  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_CJF6FUGT7O2EDEQ6U3KDSTJRCY abigail blanche

    The poem “Sa Aking mga Kabata” taught us to love our national language. In my opinion it doesn’t it really matter if Jose Rizal or Herminigildo Cruz or Gabriel Beato Francisco wrote it. As long as we have the opportunity to read a great poem and bury the lessons it taught us in our hearts. All I know is Jose Rizal is a great writer; he wrote many poems, and novels to prove that. The most important thing is that he sacrificed his life and his “kalayaan” to save our country. 
    (SSC) – Co

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_E5JXUWE452MSRX6A3ZRYP5X33M Aretta Roxas

    I believe that Rizal wrote the poem himself. If it is not
    him, then who else? Herminigildo Cruz? If he really was the one who wrote the
    poem then he should have complained the moment it was recognized that it’s
    Rizal’s work. Saturnino Raselis? If it was true that they had close friendship,
    then why did not his name even appear in Rizal’s diaries and writings? Raselis’
    existence is much more questionable. As I read the article, I doubted more the
    information stated. It would be more believable if evidences were mentioned
    with credible sources.
    “Rizal had 35 years to publish or assert authorship. He
    did not.” Would an 8-year old child decide to write a poem with the
    intention of publishing it? I don’t think so. Besides, why would Rizal publish
    it and assert authorship of that poem after years knowing that it’s just one of
    his childhood works and knowing that he could write much better than that?
    I still believe that Jose Rizal wrote this poem. I also
    believe that he was able to come up with this kind of poem with the
    help of his mother that’s why it seemed so perfect for it to be composed by an 8-year old child.


  • http://twitter.com/janahjavier janah kariza javier

    the poem of Rizal, “Sa aking mga Kabata” really serve as an inspiration. especially nowadays. for me, it doesn’t matter who wrote this poem. it really matter is how this poem will inspire each readers and how it will be recognize by us. so why keep on asking who is the really writer of this poem? why not look on the brighter side of it and stop making issues. :)

    janah javier
    BM3a SSC

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Jeraldyn-Desamito/100000203922887 Jeraldyn Desamito

    Did Rizal write this poem at 8 years old? Did Rizal write this poem at
    all? Based on the facts stated by Ambeth Ocampo, I personally think that
    Dr. Jose Rizal did not really write this poem. It is because of the ability of
    an 8 year old in writing such poem that of a much older people. The poem
    contains words and meaning that I think cannot really be understood fully by an
    8 year old boy. Also, the idea of freedom stated in the poem is not applicable because
    children at the age of 8 is not that conscious about freedom in the Philippines
    especially during that time, wherein the Filipino people are not given their
    freedom in different ways.


    SSC – Jeraldyn Desamito

  • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=100000187500228 Patricia Punzalan

    I believe Rizal wrote “Sa Aking Kabata” in spite of rumours that came out after they read this poem only because of the word “kalayaan.” During his time wherein the Spanyards have taken over the Philippines, Filipinos became eager to be free from slavery and inequality. And as a Filipino child who have parents suffering from pain and discrimination they became aware of the things surrounds them and because of those misery people became brave to fight for their own freedom, and I think that was the time Rizal encounter that word from others most especially from her mom. On the other hand, if they say that Herminigildo Cruz or Saturnino Raselis is the one who wrote that poem, why they didn’t defend their selves and prove that they wrote it. They may say that they used to it but I know Filipinos will never let their selves down and they always wanted to prove and spread every single achievement that they have done. That’s why, again I believe Rizal wrote it even at the age of 8 because it is truly an inspiration to everyone most especially the kids to value everything what is right.

    SSC- Patricia Punzalan

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_W2ZYWOUZSAG5MHJ5VBLNP6KG6Y Tash Pascual

    I do believe that our national hero, Rizal, wrote the poem “Sa Aking Mga Kabata”. Why? Because of the mere fact that he is a genius. Let us stop prejudices.We should not underestimate the skills and abilities of an 8 year old. Mozart started to compose songs at the age of 5, T. Edison started to experiment stuff at the age of 6, and many other inventor/genius started to do things at a very young age. What I’m trying to say is that, it is possible that Rizal really wrote this poem. Maybe someone just revised it that’s why the term “kalayaan” was written with a “k” instead of “c”. If  Herminigildo Cruz or Beato Francisco really wrote it, then why he didn’t fight for his right to be the author of “Sa Aking Mga Kabata”? Besides it was such a beautiful poem, I don’t think someone will hide the fact that he is the real author of this poem.


  • http://twitter.com/clarisseannftw Clarisse Miranda

    I agree with some of them here. It’s impossible indeed for an 8 year-old boy to write a poem like this. Whoever wrote this poem will be credited better if it has reached and affected the hearts of the Filipinos even if his or her name isn’t written beside the poem. Besides,  a child that has this kind of knowledge in Spanish time wherein there is frailocracy or the friars are the one who dictate what knowledge should be spread out.  Another question involving this issue I may say is that, Does Francisco Mercado or Teodora Alonzo has something to do with this? Did they guide young Rizal in doing this? Such an impossible way for a kid at a young age to think of such a profound words or metaphors in the poem.The thought and target of this poem is none other than us, filipinos, that we may feel the same way for our country.

  • http://twitter.com/clarisseannftw Clarisse Miranda

      I agree with some of them here. It’s impossible indeed for an 8 year-old boy to write a poem like this. Whoever wrote this poem will be credited better if it has reached and affected the hearts of the Filipinos even if his or her name isn’t written beside the poem. Besides,  a child that has this kind of knowledge in Spanish time wherein there is frailocracy or the friars are the one who dictate what knowledge should be spread out.  Another question involving this issue I may say is that, Does Francisco Mercado or Teodora Alonzo has something to do with this? Did they guide young Rizal in doing this? Such an impossible way for a kid at a young age to think of such a profound words or metaphors in the poem.The thought and target of this poem is none other than us, filipinos, that we may feel the same way for our country.


  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_7YJCP4SXDEIFJIBAO4CG7IDSYQ charmaine

    Rizal already did his part in showing how his country
    meant a lot to him. We have no right to discredit the ones he wrote and the ones he did for this country. The questions we have in mind now like the one regarding who wrote the poem “Sa Aking mga Kabata” and whether Rizal indeed wrote it at an age of 8 will forever remain unanswered. Whether he wrote it or not, whether at an age of 8 or not, Rizal still deserves the tributes and admiration given to him by the Filipino people. Besides, this poem is nothing compared to his novels that paved way for the Filipinos to seek and fight for their own liberty.

    – Charmaine Martinez, SSC

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Danix-Valientes/100000159787271 Danix Valientes

    In the poem Sa aking mga kabata, Jose Rizal gave us the saying “ang hindi magmahal sa kanyang salita ay mahigit sa hayop at malansang isda”. In the said poem, he mentioned the word “kalayaan” meaning freedom twice but for me as a student studying Rizal and having a little background about him, I think he’s not completely aware of the true meaning of the word “kalayaan”. I recalled the lessons discussed about Rizal including his teachings and I remembered Rizal’s first teacher was his mother and his lessons was mainly on spanish not tagalog. And on his diaries, it was mentioned that before he entered school, he had some tutoring on latin from a former classmate of his father. So basically, spanish and latin was the only languages Rizal has a background on. Rizal never encountered the word “kalayaan” until he saw it in Marcelo H. Del Pilar’s “Pagibig sa tinubuang lupa”. Upon reading the poem again, I remembered the letter Rizal wrote to his brother Paciano in 1886, he had written a tagalog translation of Friedrich Schiller’s german play and he explained that he had a hard time translating the said play to tagalog. The poem contains very mature insights for an eight year old boy. The first stanza compares a people’s love for their language with their desire to be free. Second stanza describes freedom as natural state of all creatures. Fourth stanza declares that tagalog is just as equal as the language latin and spanish compares it with the language of the angels. Another line in the poem talks about the people’s desire to gain their lost liberty but in real life when he was older in his own words his main goal was to gain human and political rights for us Filipinos with the spanish empire not merely or total independence from it. We all know for a fact that Jose Rizal was a genius. He was an artist, physician and an engineer. He spoke more than 20 languages and he even wrote two very influential novels that inspired Filipinos to fight for independence. But for us students studying his life and works, it is important for us to know the truth behind his works. -Danica Valientes, SSC.

  • http://www.facebook.com/rEnZimAe.xIeTeh Renzimae Anzaldo Acuña

    Even though there were many arguments on who really wrote the poem “Sa Aking Mga Kabata”, which talks about the love for our own language and the freedom of our own country, I do believe that our national hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal was the one who really wrote this poem. Why? Because he’s really intelligent. I remembered what our professor shared with the class that Rizal was asked by his teacher to go home because he doesn’t have anything to teach Rizal since he saw that this young boy already knew most of the things he would like to discuss with him. It’s not impossible for an 8-year old boy to have his consciousness with regards to freedom and write a poem like this especially if he is aware of the things happening around him because of his brother Paciano. We should be proud that despite of his young age during that time, the true blood of a hero can be seen on him through his poems that showed his love for our own country and used it as his instrument for awakening the hearts and souls of the Filipinos to fight for our country’s freedom.

    – Renzimae Acuña, SSC

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_O5RW6JKVTEBTPN5ERVNBFJXSME marie khristi

    Lumaki ako na ang kasabihang  “ang hindi magmahal sa kanyang sariling wika ay masahol pa sa hayop at malansang isda” ay sinulat ni Jose Rizal.  Ngayong nasa kolehiyo na ay aking nalaman na may mga pag-aagam agam pala ukol sa sa totoong may akda ng Sa Aking mga Kabata.   Ayon kay Ambeth Ocampo may mga ebidensya na magpapatunay na hindi sinulat ni Rizal ang tulang ito.  Subalit magbabago ba ang pagtingin sa tula kung sakaling hindi nga si Rizal ang sumulat? Mababawasan ba ang saysay nito?

    Bagamat mahalaga pa rin naman na malaman kung sino ang may akda lalo na’t ang nakataya rito ay ang ang ating pambansang bayani para sa akin mas mahalaga sa pansariling aspeto na pagtuunan nalang ng pansin ang mensaheng nais ipaabot nito.  Naipaabot nga ba sa lahat ng Pilipino? At kung naipaabot man ay naisasabuhay ba ito?  Napukaw ba ng tula ang kamalayan ng mga Pilipino sa usapin ng kahalagahan at pagmamahal ng ating sariling wikang Filipino? Subalit kung wala namang saysay ang tulang iyon at hindi ito matagumpay na mahalin ng mga Pilipino ang wikang Filipino ay walang ring saysaykung sino pa ang sumulat nito.  Ipaubaya nalang sa mga mananaliksik at istoryador ang pagpapatunay kung sino nga ang totoong may akda.  May magbabago ba kung hindi nga si Rizal ang nagsulat? Marahil sa aspeto ng akademiko ay meron pero hindi dapat madungisan o mabawasan ang pagtingin sa kahenyuhang pinamalas niya. 

    Malakas ang mga punto at katibayan upang masabing hindi sinulat ni Rizal ang Sa Aking mga Kabata.  Ngayong nailathala na ang mga magpapatibay sa argumentong ito, sa anong kadahilanan bakit nangyari ito?

    Kung hindi nga ito sinulat ni Rizal ano kaya ang mga kadahilanan at ginamit ang kanyang pangalan at edad na walong taong gulang. Ang salarin ay ang utak sa paglalagay ng kanyang pangalan at paglathala na ginawa ang tula noong walong taong gulang lamang siya.  Naisip marahil ng tunay na
    may akda, si Cruz man o si Francisco, na maaaring mas magiging makabuluhan, mas tatatak o mas mamahalin ng mga Pilipino ang wika natin sapagkat siya ay isang henyo.  Iba ang dating kung sa isang pambansang bayani manggagaling ang mga katagang sinambit sa tula.   Marahil dahil nga para sa mga kabataan ang tulang ito kung kaya’t walong taong gulang ang ginamit sapagkat mas mabisa kung mangagaling sa utak o pagtingin ng isang bata. Hindi ba’t mas maganda na bata pa lamang ay mulat na at naisasapuso na ang kahalagahan ng sariling wika? Sa kabilang banda maaari rin namang ito talaga ang nais ng totoong may akda, ang guluhin tayo at laruin ang ating mga isipan. O kaya nama’y pamamaraan niya upang mas mapansin ang tula sa pamamagitan ng paggamit ng hindi magkakatugmang impormasyon. Kung gayon ay nagtagumpay siya. 
    SSC – 9

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_XV3T3R6HSMXG6KXRUR435IJ7OA Merlyn

    Oo nga, aba! si Rizal nga ba
    talaga ang gumawa ng tulang “Sa aking mga Kabata”? Kung gayon, ako’y napaisip
    bakit lumalabas ang ganitong tanong. Marahil ba’y isa syang kilalang magaling
    na manunulat na pambansang bayani kaya’t pangalan nya’y ginamit para sa
    ikababansag ng isang tula? Kung si Francisco man o si Raselis ang gumawa nito,
    ay bakit hindi nila inilagay ang kanilang mga pangalan para sila’y makatanggap
    ng parangal sa galing sa paggawa ng tula? Aking naisip na hindi kaya’y, tula
    talaga ito na gawa ni Rizal ngunit ito’y nabahiran na ng maling pagsalin? Si
    Rizal lang ang higit na nakakaalam kung sya nga ba o hindi ang gumawa ng tulang
    ito. Hindi naman natin pwede hukayin si Rizal para tanungin. Sa ngayon, wala sa
    atin ang sino man makakapagpatunay sa mga bagay na ito. Ngunit, napakasama lang
    na tayo’y nabuhay sa maling kasaysayan. Hindi ba’t katotohanan ang dapat
    manaig? Lalong lalo na sa kung paano nagkaroon ng kamalayan ang mga Pilipino
    noon.  Ngunit, ganun na lamang talaga pinapahalagahaan ang tulang ito, dahil hindi sa gawa ito ni Rizal, marahildahil din ito sa ganda ng kahulugan.  -MERLYN CAIBIGAN, SSC

  • http://www.facebook.com/kyna.alegre Kyna Alegre

    Sa totoo lang, walang kaso sa
    akin kung sino man ang sumulat ng tulang ‘to. Hindi naman kasi mababago ng
    pangalan ng sumulat ang impresyon ko sa tula. Noong bata pa ako ilang beses ko
    nang nabasa ang tulang ‘to pero lagi kong nakakalimutan kung sino ang sumulat. J Ngayon kolehiyo lang
    na-retain sa utak ko na si rizal pala
    ang sumulat nito. Kasi naman, para sa ‘kin mas mahalaga iyong mensahe ng tula kaysa
    kung sino ang sumulat. Oo naman mahalaga na mabigyan ng credit ang totoong sumulat pero huwag sana ma-devalue ang halaga at impact ng tula dahil lang hindi ang ‘pambansang bayani’ ang sumulat
    nito. Sana, let’s appreciate the work for
    its worth and not for the credentials of the one who wrote it. Para sa ‘kin
    maganda ang mensahe ng tula dahil hindi lang ‘to isang tula para manghikayat na
    gamitin ang wikang Filipino (remember the issue that they only made it seem
    like Rizal wrote the poem so as to promote Tagalog as the national language at
    that time?). Sa halip, parang sinasabi rin ng tula na hindi masamang gamitin
    ang wikang mas kumportable tayo (be it English, Spanish, Filipino, or wikang
    anghel >.<  if you want) para mas
    maparating natin ang gusto talaga nating sabihin. Sa ‘kin iyon ang pagiging
    malaya. Sa opinion ko lang, hindi nga si Rizal ang sumulat nito  kasi ang alam ko kahit na noong matanda na si
    Rizal mas kumportable siyang sumulat sa wikang Espanyol kaya malamang na mas
    hirap siyang gawin iyon noong bata pa siya. Opinyon ko lang naman ‘yon. J Pero, siguro kaya
    hindi na inako pa nung totoong sumulat ang tula niya ay dahil it already served its purpose. I don’t mind
    the scholars trying to find out who the real author is but for us (common
    people) we shouldn’t stop appreciating the work. Kung hindi tayo makatulog
    sa gabi sa kakaisip na unfair naman na pabayaan na lang ang mga textbooks natin na mailathala ng may
    hindi siguradong impormasyon, e di sa susunod iwanan na lang natin na blanko
    ang pangalan ng may-akda. Kahit naman hindi si Rizal ang sumulat nito it’s worth reading pa rin naman. Saka
    ayos lang naman na magbasa tayo ng mga akdang hindi natin alam kung sino ang
    sumulat kasi hanggang ngayon nga hindi pa rin naman natin kilala kung sino talaga
    si Bob Ong, di ba?! Ahaha! And yet, we
    continuously laugh our hearts out reading his (Bob Ong) works. It’s the same
    thing, I guess. For as long as the work touches our hearts, it’s worth reading.

    ssc-kyna alegre

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_XFPUA2DBSOB2F6SHNNFSGDYCKM Jorai

    Judging the poem, I myself had found it very odd coming from an eight-year old boy, but if it was from Jose Rizal? I doubt myself then. I too have the same prejudice about Rizal’s great mind. I believe that he was capable of making such incredible artworks, especially literary. He has shown enormous exemplary in school. 

    Nevertheless, judging the facts shown in the article, I consider Rizal as an alleged author of the poem. I have read from some books that Rizal was neither good in speaking nor writing Tagalog literatures. As the matter fact, it was said that Rizal had forcedly wrote Makamisa because he needed to write, at least, a Tagalog output besides Spanish novels and poems. Unfortunately, Makamisa had proven that our national hero indeed was not a Tagalog literary superb as he was not able to finish the said poem.

    Undeniably, Rizal may have written the poem Sa Aking Kabata but with the help of his mother, Teodora Alonzo. Rizal was from a prominent family, thus entitling them to communicate in Spanish. And while Rizal was growing up, he had been adapting the Spanish traditions as well as it language, true enough that he had been writing his most excellent works in a foreign language like Spanish. Therefore, it is impeccable for an eight-year old Rizal to ever written a poem as extensive as Sa Aking Kabata is.

    Lastly, I believe in Rizal’s integrity and self-reliance. He would not write works that was written in Spanish. He would rather and must have written it in Tagalog first since it is the language that he believes must be carried in the hearts of every Filipinos. However, if he indeed wrote it, then he must be a perfect hero never practice what he had preached.

    – Carreon, Marjorie, SSC

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_JIRIU5D2HZ43I6BY6RYK4VD2RY Maica

    Rizal wrote “Sa Aking Kabata”. He was maybe only taught by his mother but the words written there was a primary source. It was based on Rizal’s own experience. It is possible that at the age 8 to write a poem. Before you can write a poem, you need inspiration and that experiences provoked him in writing it. And the people that they were saying who really wrote the poem was unbelievable because it looked like they were just passing and passing it. Also, the fact that it is been decades, yes decades of knowing that Rizal was the one who wrote it and now they became unsure. For me, it was indeed our national hero, Dr. Jose Rizal who wrote “Sa Aking Kabata” at age 8.

    Maica Angela Barrameda, SSC

  • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=1439783146 Jemelle Silvestre

    Did Rizal really write a poem for children?
    During his childhood years, he already developed a linguistic ability that he inherited from his mother. His mother loves to make poetry that influenced and motivates him to harness his ability in literature. Being a versatile in the field of literature, at his young fruitful age of 8, he already wrote a poem entitled ” Sa aking kababata ” ( To my fellow children ). This poem does not only show his skills, but also shows his nationalistic perspective through his country and proclaimed in some of the verses in the poem that people who love their native language will surely strive for the liberty like ” The bird which soars to freer space above ” by Jose Rizal. On the other hand he despise people who do not acknowledge their own native language just like what he have said ” Ang taong hindi marunong lumingon sa kanyang pinanggalingan ay mas masahol pa sa malansang isda “. The poem that he dedicated to the children signifies that he already knew that his fellow children are the future of what may happen to their own country. Rizal did not only intend to dedicate his poem to children, but also he intend to give message to all Filipinos that freedom can  only be attained by pursuing their own liberty. Having a vibrant spirit of a nationalist, and versatile gifts of a genius, he proved to be a providentially destined to be the pride and glory of his nation. He also proved to the children that, in any aspect of life, they could seek their true selves by loving their own country just like he did. Therefore, I believe that Rizal has a capability to write an inspiring poem at the age of 8 yrs old.

    Jemelle S. SilvestreBM3A – SSC

  • http://www.facebook.com/lmnlsnd Lumina Aquino Loseñada

    alam naman natin na si Dr. Jose Rizal, ang ating bayani, ay isa sa mga pinakamatalinong estudyante noong siya’y nag-aaral pa lamang. Hindi nakapagtataka na noong siya’y 8 na taon gulang pa lamang ay nakapagsulat na siya ng ganitong klasing mga sulatin. Noon, ang mga bata ay mulat sa kung ano ang nangyayari sa kanilang pamayanan kung kaya’t noong panahon na iyon, kahit nasa murang edad pa lamang, bukas na sa isip ng mga bata kung ano ang nangyayari at malalalim na sila kung umisip. Sa tingin ko, hindi naman maikukumpara ang kahusayan ng ating bayani sa panunulat, posibleng siya nga ang nagsulat dahil sa kanyang angking kakayanan kahit nasa murang edad pa lamang. Subalit, may mga bagay din tayong kailangan isaalang-alang sa pag imbestiga patungkol sa bagay na ito. Sa aking pananaw ay ang ating bayani ang sumulat ngunit kung ito’y mapagaaralan at mapapatunayan, ito’y dapat tuklasin agad para sa edukasyon sa hinaharap.

    Lumina Losenada

  • http://www.facebook.com/rvillagonza Gang-gang Villagonza

    For me, the poem entitled “Sa Aking mga Kabata” is one of  Rizal’s writing because if it is not, then why should the name Rizal was the one wrote as the writer? Sa Aking mga Kabata, teach us on how children are important in our country, whom the hope of our own nation. Rizal was a lover,so i could say that Rizal and maybe there are someone who helped him in writing this poem that’s the reason why he was able to used dome words that was not yet in that time but still it was his thought to write about it:)

    Villagonza, Rizel P. -SSC

  • Anonymous

    my first encounter of reading this poem until the very moment I read this
    article, I still do believe that Rizal made the “Sa Aking Mga Kabata” poem.
    According to Austin Coates, Rizal was taught by his mother the “Panulaang
    Tagalog” which had vanished due to selfish Spaniards, is not it? Exposure to
    such genre at an early age may give him the inspiration to revive the Tagalog
    language. Would it be likely that this particular poem is ideally devoted to
    such purpose? Furthermore, why did your suspects never stood as the writer of
    this poem with such meaningful and powerful words that they did not even think
    of the impact of the message of this piece? Or are they just cowards that they
    might face death if it will be released at their own stakes? Then, truly, they
    do not value themselves as being Filipinos. They did nothing to eradicate the
    burden of the country. If they happened to make this then it was all worthless
    because they themselves never stood in loving their country. You have
    apparently said it that Rizal proposed the usage of “k” instead of “c” and it
    can be inferred that Rizal had this thoughts of using “k” at an early age and
    this piece can be the means by which his purpose can be achieved, love for the
    country by way of loving one’s language. Show proofs that the letter addressed
    to Paciano dated October 12, 1886 really do exists. If you prove to have a copy
    may be his concern was that he was able to translate the texts into his mother
    tongue but then again he was not sure that the translations can be well
    understood by a different readers’ perspective. A piece should dwell on a
    three-way discourse, author-text-reader. Or may be after getting used to
    speaking in Spanish for a long time, then his fluency in Tagalog has vanished
    and it is not that he was not capable of speaking since then in Tagalog. Put
    some credible and reliable source and not just mere hearsays. Why do others
    doubt so much of Rizal’s life? Are they not just contented that he is our
    national hero? Do they need further information for them to make him known as
    your national hero? Any bets for that position? However, what is important in
    the poem is the message it delivers regardless of whom created it. In addition,
    if your motive is to get rid Rizal as the national hero, regardless of whether
    your information is true or not, this unreliable information will not be a move
    against Rizal being the national hero because this piece is not the only work
    he has done for the country. For a long time there is too much speculations and
    doubts about Rizal’s capabilities and life and I think it is just becoming a
    usual thing for us Filipinos.

    Floriza S., SSC-Manila

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_4SAQCHGR32PNKWI3UHEGWFTRPI lovely

    Ayon dito papaanong
    naisulat ni Jose Rizal ang ganoong klaseng tula sa edad na walong taon kung siya
    ay nagsisimula pa lamang matutong magbasa sa kandungan ng kanyang ina sa Calamba,
    Laguna? Sa edad na walong taon nga ba nagsimulang matutong magbasa si Pepe?
    Hindi ba ayon sa mga aklat si Jose Rizal ay natuto na ng alpabeto sa edad na
    tatlo sa tulong ng kanyang unang guro, ang kanyang ina? At sa edad na lima ay
    may kakayahan na siyang magbasa at magsulat.

    Base din dito
    tinatantya nila na hindi isinulat ni Rizal ang nasabing tula para sa ina noong
    taong 1869 sapagkat ang ginamit ni Rizal sa kanyang mga salita ay ang titik “k”
    sa halip na titik “c” gayong sa panahon noon ang titik c ang ginagamit ng mga
    tao. Alinsunod dito ang pagbatikos nila sapagkat ang “kalayaan” daw ay
    makailang beses nasambit sa tula gayong ang salitang kalayaan ay nabatid lamang
    ni Rizal noong taong 1882 sa gulang na dalawampu’t isa (21). Sapagkat ayon daw
    sa liham ni Pepe para sa kapatid na si Paciano, siya ay nahirapan isalin sa
    wikang tagalog ang Wilhelm Tell na nakasulat sa wikang aleman. Nasambit daw ni
    Rizal na nagkaroon siya ng problema na isalin sa tagalog ang salitang “freiheit
    o liberty”, kaya labis na ipinagtataka ng may akda kung papaanong sa edad na
    walo ay nagamit ni Rizal ang salitang kalayaan.

    Marahil may
    punto nga si Ocampo dito, ngunit sa kanya na rin mismo nanggaling na walang
    orihinal na “manuscript” ang tula ni Rizal, hindi daw ito natagpuan kung kaya
    ay walang matibay na ebidensya na si Rizal nga ang may akda ng tula maliban na
    lang sa taong nag-ngangalan na Saturnino Raselis na nagsasabing kaibigan daw ni
    Rizal mula sa Majayjay, Laguna. Ang tula daw na “sa aking mga kabata” ay
    ibinigay sa kanya tanda ng kanilang pagiging matalik na mag-kaibigan. Sa aking
    opinyon gayong wala rin naman silang nahawakan na tunay na “manuscript” marahil
    ang nailimbag na bersyon ay nagpasalin salin na rin sa kamay ng kung sino sinong
    manunulat at hindi malabong napalitan ang orihinal na ginawa ni Pepe.

    Panay panay din
    ang panunuligsa kay Rizal sapagkat ayon sa kanya ang taong hindi marunong
    magmahal sa sariling wika ay masahol pa sa hayop at malansang isda, ngunit siya
    mismo ay hindi ito ginagamit sa kanyang mga obra. Karamihan o halos lahat ng
    ginawa ni Rizal ay nakasulat sa wikang kastila, ayon din sa may akda ikinumpara
    pa ni Rizal ang wikang tagalog sa wikang latin, ingles, kastila at salitang

    Hindi ibig
    sabihin na kapag hindi mo ginamit ang wikang tagalog sa iyong mga nobela, aklat
    at mga tula ay hindi mo na mahal ang iyong sariling wika. Bagamat ang mga akda
    ni Rizal ay nakasulat sa wikang kastila naniniwala ako na siya mismo ay hindi
    maihahalintulad sa hayop at malansang isda, marahil ang mga salita dito ay
    banyaga ngunit ang nilalaman ay patungkol pa rin sa paghihirap ng inang bayan
    sa kamay ng mga mananakop. Siguro ay may sariling adhikain si Rizal kung kaya’t
    ginawa niya ang mga obra niya sa wikang banyaga, baka batid niyang hindi ito
    maiintindihan ng mga dayuhan kung kaya imbes na wikang tagalog ay mas pinili
    niyang gamitin ang wikang banyaga. Ayon sa aking pagkakaintindi kung kaya’t
    inihalintulad ni Rizal ang wikang tagalog sa ibang wika ay nais niyang ipabatid
    sa atin na magkakatumbas lamang ito at pantay pantay kaya nararapat lamang na
    mahalin ito at pagyamanin.

    ang kakayahan ni Rizal sa pagkakagawa ng tulang “sa aking mga kabata”, sino nga
    ba ang tunay na may akda? Wala akong naiisip na dahilan upang siya ay magtago
    at hayaan na lamang na si Jose Rizal ang umani ng papuri sa tulang ito. Ang
    konsepto ng “plagiarism” ay nagsimula noong 1621, kaya naniniwala ako na
    pwedeng pwede ito gamitin laban kay Jose Rizal kung hindi talaga siya ang
    sumulat neto. Bagamat hindi ito isang matinding krimen ay mapagbabayad naman
    niya ng danyos si Jose Rizal sa pagnanakaw ng kanyang tula.

    Tecson, SSC MANILA

  • Anonymous

    After reading this article, I somehow believed that Rizal was not the true writer of “Sa aking mga kabata”. Based on the reasons stated above by Mr, Ambeth Ocampo, one would really doubt if Rizal has ever written the said poem. A lot of details regarding Rizal and this poem are questionable and I think that one should stand up and clarify the issues so that, the true author can be recognized and be given the credit because “Sa aking mga kabata” is truly an impressive and inspirational poem that will be learned by many Filipinos in many generations to come.

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_MR4FZFHUCYUNCFCHW45R3GSGTM jenny

    Nang matapos kong basahin ang artikulo ni Ambeth R. Ocampo ay napaisip din ako hinggil sa kung sino talaga ang nagsulat ng tulang “Sa aking mga Kabata”. Hindi natin maikakaila na may angking galing at katalinuhan ang ating bayaning si Dr. Jose Rizal. Dahil sa kakayahan niya, hindi rin malayong makakagawa talaga siya ng isang tula. Ngunit sa mga ebidensyang sinabi ni Ambeth Ocampo ay lumalabas na hindi talaga si Rizal ang gumawa ng tulang “Sa aking mga Kabata”.
    Maraming mga bagay ang kailangan klaruhin hinggil sa isyu na ito. Kailangan mabigyang kasagutan na ang mga katanungan tungkol dito upang mabigyan na ito ng linaw para sa ating lahat.

    Balila, SSC

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2VN726UFV42LTCNWHC6BEBMGSQ MARIAN

    maraming wika sa Pilipinas ang hindi napagbatayan ng wikang pagbansa dahil sa Tagalog lang ang pinagbasihan nito noong 1935. isa ang tulang ito sa nakapag-udyok ng hindi gaanong nakatulong sa ating mga Pilipino sa usapin ng kaakuhan (identity), wika at pagkakaisa.

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_2VN726UFV42LTCNWHC6BEBMGSQ MARIAN

    iba ang Pilipino sa Filipino na wikang pambansa natin ngayon.

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